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Exercise I. Suggest an appropriate lexical equivalent for the modal verb have (to) in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. «You don't have to do it.» 2. «You have to go back to school.» (Salinger) 3. «If you gain anything, you will have to fight for it.» 4. «Times are hard ... I have my family to keep.» 5. «You will have to wait until you hear from me again.» (Dreiser) 6. «We've got to go to bed.» 7. «She's not to know about it.» (Fitzgerald) 8. «Hadn't we better put a little bit of stick or something between each word.?» (Kipling) 9. «Doris, I've got something to say to you.»10. «He'd have nothing more to do with the woman and Macomber would get over that too.» (Hemingway) 11. «... under my oath I've got to try to catch the criminal.» (Saroyan) 12. «Shan't we have to risk it?» (C.S.Lewis) 13. «Well, we've got a little business to talk about,» said Boom con­fidently. (W.Jacobs) 14. «All I had to look forward was doing the same old thing day after day.» (Maugham) 15. «How long did you have to stay there?» (F.Cooper) 16. «You don't have to be an alcoholic to hurt your baby; you just have to be drinking enough while pregnant.» (Alcohol, the Legal Drug) 17. «I must write stories and they have to be stories that will sell.» (Salinger) 18. «Bob has to be on duty at the


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hospital at nine o'clock.» (J.King) 19. «You have to take it.» (Dreiser) 20. «She and Diana, have a lot to arrange together.» 21. «... you've still got to take it easy.» (F.King)

5. Together with the common in both languages modal verbs of generally isomorphic nature there is one conspicuous for its us­age. This is the synonymous to the modal verb have to English modal verb to be (to) which has some meanings that are realized depend­ing on the form and lexical meaning of the infinitive following it. This modal verb may express obligation or necessity resulting from an arrangement or from a prearranged agreement/plan. The Ukrainian equivalents for these meanings of to be (to) are usually the modal verbs мати, повинен, мусити:

a) «Remember, Joe, you are «He забувай, Джо, що ти
to run the laundry according to маєш керувати пральнею


those old rules you used to lay down. (London)

According to the agreement rent was to be paid strictly in ad­vance. (Ibid.)

згідно тих старих правил, які ти сам колись виробив.»

Згідно угоди, комірне (квартплатня) повинне було сплачуватись обов'язково наперед.

When to be (to) expresses the meaning of inevitability of some action or event, it is translated into Ukrainian as the modal verb мати:

«Якщо вже це мало скоїтись. то воно мало скоїтись саме так, а не інакше.»

«If the thing was to happen, it was to happen in this way ...» (E.Wharton)

The modal verb to be (to) may also express a meaning corre­sponding to the Ukrainian stative треба:

«It was to be expected.» Mrs. «Цього і треба було чекати.»
Mors said gently. (London) - стиха промовила пані Морз.


с) Sometimes the modal meaning of the verb to be (to) is faithfully conveyed by means of the Ukrainian infinitival predicate of the sentence and the strictly logical position of the parts of the sen­tence, as in the rhetorical questions below:

What am I to do now? Що мені тепер робити? (Maugham)

How was President Kravchuk Як президентові Кравчуку

to have won the re-election? було перемогти на повторних
(F.News) виборах?

d) When expressing order or instruction (usually in reported speech) the modal verb to be (to) is translated into Ukrainian either with the help of the modal verbs бути повинним/мати, or with the help of a subordinate clause respectively. For example:

«Я йому скажу, щоб він більш не приходив/шоб його ноги не було біля цього будинку.»

«You are to stay in bed until «Ви не повинні вставати.
you are allowed to get up.» (Du доки лікар не дозволить (доки
Maurier) вам не дозволять).


«I'm going to tell him he's not to come to the house anymore.» (W.Jacobs)

e) When expressing possibility, the modal verb to be (to) is translated with the help of the modal verbs можна, мати, or with the help of the modal word можливо:

There is a good training to be Там можна пройти гарну
had there. (Dreiser) практику/вишкіл.


... in the basement of the ... у підвальному приміщенні Diggby Avenue, Congregational на Ліґбі Авеню мали відбутися Church, there was to be held а збори конґреґаційної церкви з social with refreshments. (Ibid.) частуванням.

f) When expressing an assumptive or suggested possibility, the meaning of the modal verb to be (to) is mostly rendered with the help of a peculiar logical sentence structure. The meaning of the modal verb to be (to) in such sentences may have reference either to present or to future. For example:

«I am to have the priviledge «Мені випадає щаслива
of sitting next to you.» нагода сидіти поруч з вами/Я
(Maugham) матиму приємність посидіти


поруч з вами.»

g) Somewhat clearer is the reference to future, however, when the modal verb to be (to) is used in the subjunctive mood as in the underlined conditional clauses below:

If anything were to happen, it Якби що-небудь мало
would cost me my place all right, скоїтися/скоїлося, я неодмінно
(Dreiser) втратив би своє місце.



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If he were to come, he would certainly have arrived already. (S.Sheldon)

Якби він мав приїхати, він би вже напевне приїхав/він був би вже приїхав.

There may also be other contextual modal meanings of the verb to be (to) in English, which can be ascertained from the sen­tences in the given exercise below.

Exercise I. Translating the sentences into Ukrainian state the meaning of the modal verb to be to in each of them.

1. «Is he to take it that everything is O.K.?» (Salinger) 2.1 was to catch them and hand them over to her. (C.Lewis) 3. «There is only one thing to be done.» (Cronin) 4. We made a list of things to be taken. (J.K.Jerome) 5. «If I were to marry Guilliandum, the Church would never stand for it.» (J.Fowler) 6. But all his meals were to be taken outside his working hours and he was to report promptly in uniform for line-up and inspection by his superior... 7. This daughter of poverty, who was now to fetch and carry the laundry of this citizen, was a creature of a mellowness of temperament. 8. They were to be seen upon the principal streets of Kansas City flitting to and fro like flies. 9.... he was to be held back by any suggestion which his mother could now make. 10. She could give him seventy five dollars cash in hand, the other forty to be paid in one week's time. 11. Anything to be as carefully concealed as possible. 12. ... they were to be turned over to Clyde with the suggestion that he try them. 13. But Clyde, in spite of this honest and well-meant condition, was not to be dissuaded. 14. ... there had been a development which was to be effected by this very decision on the part of the Griffiths. 15. And yet, if the prob­lem were on this account to be shifted to him, how would he make out? 16. From this Clyde wondered how long he was to be left in that dim world below the stairs. 17. ... there was to be staged on June twentieth the annual intercity automobiling floral parade and contest, which this year was to be held in Lycurgus and which was the last local social affair of any consequence. 18. Plainly, it was an event to be admitted to the presence of such magnificence. (Dreiser) 19. The polling stations were to have been closed at 8 p.m. (News from Ukraine)

6. The modal verb ought to like the modal verb should ex­presses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close

to that of the stative треба or modal verb слід, потрібно, which can be seen from the following sentences:

«Oh, I've forgotten, I ought to have asked Iris about her cook.» (F.King)

He ought never to have given it (the flute) up. (Galswothy)

«Every man ought to be mar­ried.» (Hemingway)

«О, а я й забув: я ж мав/ повинен був запитати Айріс про її кухарку.»

Йому нізащо не треба було кидати гру (на флейті).

«Кожному чоловікові слід одружуватись.»

As can be understood from the content of the second sen­tence, the meaning of ought to may equally be expressed through the modal verb необхідно: Кожному чоловікові необхідно одружуватись.

b) The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the modal verb ought to. which corresponds to that of the modal verbs повинен, мати, мусити:

«We're going to Greece...» «Миїдемо до Греції.» «Зараз
«...It ought to be lovely at this там мусить/повинно бути
time of year.» (Maugham) прекрасно в цю пору року»


«You ought to know that you «Ти повинен/мусиш знати,
can't have to steal.» (J. Cheever) що красти не можна.»


c) Apart from the above-mentioned, the modal verb ought to may acquire some other meanings in different contextual environ­ments. These may be as follows:

1) that of the assumptive duty or obligation, necessity, as­sumption, which is expressed in Ukrainian through the particles 6/ би, щоб and the corresponding infinitive of the verbal predicate or subordinate clause:

«You ought to be working now.» (J.Joyce)

By this time it ought to have been over. (Christie)

I don't think she ought to be in that place alone. (Galsworthy)

«Тиж повинен би працювати/ мав би бути на роботі зараз.»

На цей час/під цю пору все мало б давно вже скінчитися.

He думаю (навряд чи), щоб вона була там сама.

2) The conditional subjunctive meaning expressed through the particles б/би and the notional finite verb without the subordinate conjunctions якби or якщо б, as in the following examples:

«You ought to have seen her «Бачили б ви його в Ті


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