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1
UNIT 4
Topic: Money and payment system

Grammar: Review the sequence of tenses


Money is an essential part of the economic system. Without it the system would not function well.
Terms to remember:

goods

face value – номінальна вартість

paper bill

barter

indivisibility – неподільність

durable – довговічний

divisible

credit cards

value

coin

wealth

coincide

portable

recognisable

checks
Money is used for buying or selling goods, for measuring value and for storing wealth. Almost every society now has a money economy based on coins and paper bills of one kind or another. However this has not always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods or services one for another. In this system no money is used. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the market place that they considered to be of equal value. The farmer specialising in production of beef might find a hungry barber and thus get a haircut, or find a hungry tailor and thus exchange meal for clothes, or find a hungry doctor and thus obtain medical treatment. Farmers spent half their time producing beef, and the other half searching for someone who wants beef, but that someone had also to be able to provide something in exchange that the farmer wanted. Clearly, barter was a very inefficient system, because people's precise wants seldom coincided. Furthermore, with barter, there is a problem of indivisibility. A suit or an automobile, or a house should be bought all at once and not in pieces. People needed more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed based on goods which the members of a society recognised as having value. Cattle, grain, teeth, shells, feathers, skulls, salt, elephant tusks and tobacco have all been used. With money, exchange was much easier. Precious metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable, recognisable and divisible into larger and smaller units of value. Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries coins were given monetary worth based on the exact amount of metal contained in them, but most modern coins are based on face value – the value that governments choose to give them, irrespective of the actual metal content. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of bills, which are really ready to pay. Paper money is obviously easier to handle and much more convenient in the modern world. Checks and credit cards are being used increasingly, and it is possible to imagine a world where "money" in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used.
I. Answer the questions:

1. What is modern money economy based on?

2. What system was used in primitive society?

3. Why was barter a very unsatisfactory system of exchange?

4. Why did precious metals gradually take over?

5. How was monetary worth given to coins?

6. In what form do most governments issue paper money now?

7. What kind of money is being used increasingly?

8. What is the system of direct exchange of goods called?

9. What can we measure value with?

10. What is face value of the coin?
^ II. Find English equivalents for the following:

Прямий обмін, грошова система, вміст металу, монети та паперові гроші, накопичення, номінальна вартість, коштовні метали, кредитні картки, товари та послуги, неефективна система, спеціалізація, збіг потреб.
^ Characteristics of money

Money, whatever it is, should possess the following qualities:

1. Uniformity (однаковість). This means that equal denominations (купюри) of money should have the same value. The National Bank of Ukraine, for example, the Federal Reserve System in the USA have the responsibility in their countries to assure that money is uniform. They are institutions, which issue (випускати) paper currencies (паперові гроші). It doesn't matter if the 1$ bill that I have in my pocket is crisp (свіжий) and new or whether it is tattered (обірваний) and soiled (брудний).

2. Stability. The value of money should be more or less the same today as tomorrow. In societies where the value of money fluctuates (коливається) the economy is badly affected.

3. Durability (довговічність). It refers to the lasting quality of money. For example, apples may be used as medium (засіб) of exchange in a barter economy, but they cannot be considered money because they are not durable. Even if the apples are not eaten, they will eventually spoil and become worthless. For this reason most countries use a very high quality paper for their money.

4 Portability. Modern money has to be small enough and light enough for people to carry. Money must be easily transferred from buyer to seller. Some of the of the early forms of exchange such as gold and salt were heavy and bulky (великий). They were not a practical form of money.

5. Divisibility. It is a necessary characteristic of money and the principle advantage over barter. In other words, to make change for a banknote is easier than to make change for a cow.

6. Recognisability. Money should be easily recognised for what it is and hard to copy.
^ III. Translate into English:

Коли англійські колоністи переселились до Нового Світу, вони привезли з собою трохи грошей, якими вони користувались вдома і які вони називали фунти, шилінги, пенси. Проте це не мало ніякого значення через те, що індійці, з якими вони торгували, зовсім не цікавились грошима. Місцеві жителі не хотіли обмінювати рибу, зерно, хутра на маленькі шматочки паперу та металу. Однак вони охоче торгували через бартер. Бартер - це прямий обмін товарів чи послуг одне на одне. Наприклад, голодна сім'я переселенців могла обміняти одяг на рибу у місцевих жителів. Для цього їм потрібно було знайти того, хто мав рибу і хотів мати одяг. Звичайно, бартер мав багато недоліків. Перш ніж планувати рибу на обід, сім'я переселенців повинна була знайти того, хто прийняв би одяг як плату за рибу. Отже, грошима може бути будь-що, що приймається як плата за товари та послуги.
^ Asking about payment

Read the dialogue in pairs.

- І have a question about financial side, if you don't mind.

- The financial side?

- Yes, I wonder how I'll be paid, and when.

- Well, you'll be paid twice a month, on the second and the forth Friday.

- Will it be in cash?

- No, it's our usual practice to pay by check.

- I must admit I don't know much about checks, or banks for that matter. You see our banking system is quite different from yours. We seldom use checks at all, actually.

- Oh, you'll find it very easy to use our banking system. It saves you lots of trouble. I mean, you don't have to carry too much cash around.
^ British money

Money is an essential part of the economic system. Without it the system would not function well.
Terms to remember:

goods

face value

paper bill

barter

indivisibility

durable

divisible

credit cards

value

coin

wealth

coincide

portable

recognisable

checks
Money is used for buying or selling goods, for measuring value and for storing wealth. Almost every society now has a money economy based on coins and paper bills of one kind or another. However this has not always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods or services one for another. In this system no money is used. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the market place that they considered to be of equal value. The farmer specialising in production of beef might find a hungry barber and thus get a haircut, or find a hungry tailor and thus exchange meat for clothes, or find a hungry doctor and thus obtain medical treatment. Farmers spent half their time producing beef, and the other half searching for someone who wants beef, but that someone had also to be able to provide something in exchange that the farmer wanted. Clearly, barter was a very inefficient system, because people's precise wants seldom coincided. Furthermore, with barter, there is a problem of indivisibility. A suit or an automobile, or a house should be bought all at once and not in pieces. People needed more practical system of exchange, and various money systems, developed based on goods which the members of a society recognised as having value. Cattle, grain (зерно), teeth, shells, feathers, skulls, salt, elephant tusks and tobacco have all been used. With money, exchange was much easier. Precious metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable, recognisable and divisible into larger and smaller units of value. Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries coins were given monetary worth based on the exact amount of metal contained in them, but most modern coins are based on face value - the value that governments choose to give them, irrespective of the actual metal content. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of bills, which are really ready to pay. Paper money is obviously easier to handle and much more convenient in the modern world. Checks and credit cards are being used increasingly, and it is possible to imagine a world where "money" in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used.
^ I. Answer the questions:

1. What is modern money economy based on?

2. What system was used in primitive society?

3. Why was barter a very unsatisfactory system of exchange?

4. Why did precious metals gradually take over?

5. How was monetary worth given to coins?

6. In what form do most governments issue paper money now?

7. What kind of money is being used increasingly?

8. What is the system of direct exchange of goods called?

9. What can we measure value with?

10. What is face value of the coin?
^ II. Find English equivalents for the following:

Прямий обмін, грошова система, вміст металу, монети та паперові гроші, накопичення, номінальна вартість, коштовні метали, кредитні картки, товари та послуги, неефективна система, спеціалізація, збіг потреб.
The British currency is the pound sterling. In each pound there are 100 pence. Pounds are indicated by the symbol £ before the amount. Pence are indicated by the letter 'p. Five pounds is written therefore as £5, fifty pence as 50p. If one wants to combine the two the p's is dropped. For example, nine pounds and fifty seven pence is written as £ 9.57. British currency uses both notes (банкноти) and coins: the one pound piece [1p]; the fifty pence piece [50p], the twenty pence [20p]; the ten pence piece [10p]; the five pence piece [5p]; the two pence [2p] the one pence piece [1p]. Each coin has the date it was minted stamped on one side. There are five denominations of notes. The lowest note in value is the £5 note, the highest is the £100 note Every note has a serial number to show when it was issued and a watermark to prevent forgeries [false notes]. The Bank of England has been issuing banknotes for 300 years. During that time, both the notes themselves and their role in society have undergone continual change. From today's perspective, it is easy to accept unquestioningly that a piece of paper that costs less than three pence to produce is worth five, ten, twenty or fifty pounds. Gaining and maintaining public confidence in the currency or, to put it another way, preserving its value and integrity, is a key role of the Bank of England and one, which is essential to the proper functioning of the economy. As the present Governor points out:

"If we count the holders of our notes as customers and the Bank of England has more customers than any other bank in the country"

In order to fulfill its promise to its customers — the promise to pay — the Bank must ensure that the currency maintains as stable a level as possible, in other words, that the value of its notes is not eroded (послаблювати) by inflation. This is the role of monetary policy, which is one of the Bank's main responsibilities. It must also guarantee the integrity of its notes; making sure that they are as difficult as possible to counterfeit (підробити), that they are readily and securely available to banks and building societies upon demand, and, subject to these constraints (обмеження), that they are attractive and easily identifiable both to the human eye and to note reading machines.
^ Money in the USA

Before you read the text say what do you know about American money.
The earliest monetary statute, the so-called 'Mint Act' of April 1792, established that 'the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars or units' and that principal subsidiary (допоміжні) parts the dollar be expressed in 'dimes (sic) or tenths, cents or hundredth and miles or thousandths' and that 'all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept in conformity (відповідність) to this regulation.' By this action, the United States became the first of the present community of nations to adopt the decimal system for its currency. Another key statute was the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 (and its various amendments), which created the Federal Reserve System and, among other things, directed the Federal Reserve to manage the nation's supply of money and credit in such a way as to help achieve the basic economic goals of high employment a stable prices.

Many types of paper money have been issued during nation’s history.

^ Paper money. By far the largest proportion of American paper money in over 99 per cent — consists of Federal Reserve notes. Reserve Banks are currently authorized (наділений владою) to issue notes in denomination of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100, though 2 dollar bills are very rare. A slang word for a dollar is buck. Before 1945 notes were also printed in denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000. On July 14, 1969, denominations of $500 and larger were ordered retired.

Other Types of Paper Money. Many other types of paper money have been issued over the years. National Currency notes were issued by national banks until 1935. Gold certificates, paper money that could be exchanged for gold, were issued until 1934. Silver certificates were issued until 1957. One-dollar silver certificates made up most of the $1 bills until the first Federal Reserve notes were issued in 1963.

Size. All currently issued United States paper money is of uniform size regardless of type or denomination. Today's notes measure approximately 6.14 x 2.61 inches, are about 0.0043 inches thick, and weigh 0.03 troy ounces. Prior to July 1929, most notes measured 7.42 by 3.125 inches and, because of their large size, were often referred 'blanket bills.'

Seal (печатка). All denominations of paper money carry the Treasury seal. Prior to modernization of the design in 1968, the seal was encircled with the Latin inscription, Thesaur. Amer. Septent. Sigil., an abbreviation meaning 'The Seal of the Treasury of North America.'.

^ Serial Number. The serial number appears in two places on the face of all United States paper money — in the upper right and lower left portions. Serial numbers on all paper money now in common use are always in eight digits (знак). They also have a prefix letter and a suffix letter, unless they are 'star' notes (replacements for notes damaged in the printing process or found on inspection (обстеження) at the Bureau to be defective).

The letters are considered a part of the number. Thus, on United States notes the first note of any denomination in a new series will have the serial number A 00000001 A; the second, A 00000002 A; and so on.

^ The National Motto. Legislation approved by Congress on July 11, 1955, instructed Secretary of the Treasury to include the inscription In God We Trust on all United States currency — paper money as well as coins. The following year Congress adopted 'In God We Trust' as the national motto.
COINS

In the United States, coins are 'convenience' (зручні) money for daily transactions. Denominations in use today are the dollar (100 cents), half-dollar (50 cents), quarter (25 cents), dime (10 cents), nickel (5 cents), and penny (1 cent is a small copper (мідна) coin known as a "penny". A 5-cent coin is called a "nickel", a 10-cent coin is a "dime", and a 25-cent piece is known as a "quarter". Unlike the word "buck" these are standard terms. Half dollar and one dollar coins have no special name and are rather rare.
Note the proper way of naming a certain sum:

1.40 - "one dollar and forty cents" or "a dollar and "forty cents" or "one forty"

3.10 - "three dollars and sixty cents" or "three sixty".
^ MAKING OF PAPER MONEY

All United States paper money is produced in Washington, D.C., by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, which also designs, engraves, and prints other official items such as postage (поштові) and tax stamps (відмітки про виплату податків). Bureau operates 16 presses that print 8,500 notes per hour. Some of presses are in operation 24 hours a day.

Highly skilled engravers cut the individual features of a note design into steel dies (трафарет). Multiple plastic images of the various components fitted into a 32-bill plate configuration in the first of a series of operations leading to the manufacture of press plates. For security reasons each feature such as the portrait, vignette (віньєтка), ornaments, lettering, script is the work of a separate engraver specially trained in his particular facet (грань) of the art. The intricate lacy (мереживний) design and borders are produced by means of a geometric lathe (токарний станок).

The Bureau takes all possible precautionary (попередні) measures against counterfeiting. It uses, for example, a specially produced and distinctive paper and manufactures its own inks according to secret formulas. For anyone to manufacture or use a similar type of paper, except by special authority, is illegal. In 1991, new security features — a security thread and microprinting — were introduced on the $100 bill. The two new features will be incorporated in the designs of other denominations the coming years.
^ IV. Answer the questions:

1. What are denominations of paper money in the USA?

2. What are the names of coins?

3. Do you think it is convenient to have bills of the same colour and size irrespective of their denomination? Give your reasons. Compare American and Ukrainian money.
Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses
Learn the examples:
I

He says that he studies English.

He says that he studied English at school.

He says that he will study English next year.
II

He said that he lived in Lviv.

He said that he had lived in Lviv before he moved here.

He said that he would go to Lviv to see his old friends.
^ V. Translate into English

1. Старша сестра сказала дітям, що вони підуть погуляти, коли приготують всі уроки. 2. Її немає в саду? Мабуть, вона в своїй кімнаті. 3. Вона думала, що вони чекатимуть на неї і нікуди не підуть. 4. Якщо у мене буде ця книга, я тобі її дам. Мабуть, вона у мого брата. 5. Як тільки я поговорю з батьком, я тобі напишу. 6. Не хвилюйтесь, я все приведу в порядок до вашого повернення. 7. Він думав про доклад. Потрібно буде ще переглянути декілька книг. Коли він його відредагує та перепише, він покаже його батькові. 8. Завтра ти обідатимеш в їдальні, де ми були сьогодні ввечері. 9. Мені здається, що ми нічого не встигаємо зробити. 10. Коли ти добре відпочинеш, ти вийдеш ненадовго прогулятись. 11. Ви краще себе будете почувати, коли приймете ванну та пообідаєте. 12. Він не прийшов. Мабуть, забули його попередити. 13. Він повернеться через півгодини. 14. Коли ти отримаєш цього листа, я вже поїду з міста. 15. Оголосили, що коли закінчиться концерт, будуть танці. 16. Вона не була вчора в театрі. Мабуть, вона захворіла. 17. Я пообіцяв поговорити з її батьком, як тільки закінчу свою поему. 18. Було вирішено, що Жак залишиться на все літо в Парижі. 19. — Ми напишемо їм звідти, — сказав Даніел. — Можливо, — додав Жак, — тоді, коли ми добре влаштуємось і коли вони упевняться, що ми можемо обійтись без них. Коли ми доведемо нашими вчинками, що нам не потрібна допомога, ти побачиш, як вони нас поважатимуть.
VI. What does it mean when you see or hear...
^ FINAL SALE
Express checkout
pay at exit
Exact sum only
NO CHANGE GIVEN
A BRIEF HISTORY OF BANKNOTES
The first recorded use of paper money was in the 7th century in China. However, the practice did not become widespread in Europe for nearly a thousand years. In the 16th century the goldsmith (ювелір) bankers began to accept deposits, make loans and transfer funds. They also gave receipts (квитанції) for cash, that is to say gold coin, deposited with them. These receipts, known as 'running cash notes', were made out in the name of the depositor and promised to pay him on demand. Many also carried the words 'or bearer' (власник) after the name of the depositor, which allowed them to circulate in a limited way.

In 1694 the Bank of England was established in order to raise money for King William's war against the French. Almost immediately the Bank started to issue notes in return for deposits. Like the goldsmiths' notes the crucial feature that made Bank of England notes a means of exchange was the promise to pay the bearer the sum of the note on demand. This meant that the note could be redeemed (повернена) at the Bank for gold or coinage (металеві гроші) by anyone presenting it for payment; if it was not redeemed in full, it was endorsed (підтверджувати) with the amount withdrawn. These notes were initially handwritten on Bank paper and signed by one of the Bank's cashiers. They were made out for the precise sum deposited in pounds, shillings and pence. However, after the recoinage of 1696 reduced the need for small denomination notes, it was decided not to issue any notes for sums of less than £50. Since the average income in this period was less than £20 a year, most people went through life without ever coming into contact with a banknote.

The 18th century saw the gradual move to fixed denomination units. From 1725 the Bank was issuing partly printed notes for completion in manuscript. The £ sign and first digit (цифра) were printed but other numerals were added by hand, as were the name of the payee (одержувач), the cashier's signature, the date and the number. Notes could be for uneven amounts, but the majority was for round sums. By 1745 notes were being part printed in denominations ranging from £20 to £1,000, the latter being equivalent to £68,000 at 1994 prices.

In 1759, gold shortages caused by the Seven Years War forced the Bank to issue a £10 note for the first time. The first £5 notes followed in 1793 at the start of the war against Revolutionary France. This remained the lowest denomination until 1797, when a series of runs on the Bank, caused by the uncertainty of the war, drained its bullion (злиток золота) reserve to the point where it was forced to stop paying out gold for its notes. Instead, it issued £1 and £2 notes.

The first fully printed notes were issued in 1855, an event that brought relief to the Bank's team of cashiers, who no longer had to fill in the name of the payee and sign each note individually.
VII. Translate into Ukrainian.

Pay attention to the verb to come which is in different contexts:

1. Come on! The bank is about to close.

2. His earnings come to $40,000 a year.

3. The book first came out ten years ago .

4. I'm afraid you'll have to come in again, we'll let you know when your lost traveller's check will be replaced.

5. The flight came off well and the landing was smooth.

6. She was a calm, handsome young woman, an only child, with some money of her own and more to come.

7. Blossom gave a party which was to be the talk of London for a long time to come.
VIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. Some bank will pay no more than one hundred dollars at a time, and no more than five hundred per day. 2. When you open a checking account at a bank, be sure to have an ID (your passport, driver's license, etc.) 3. You receive a receipt after each transaction stating your balance. 4. Often you can transfer the required sum of money to another account. 5. It is also possible to deposit money using a cash machine. 6. You can withdraw money after the deposited checks have been verified which usually takes a couple of days. 7. You should check with several banks to determine which bank offers the best services for your needs. 8. Checks are an easy way to pay bills especially by mail. 9. A bank officer will help you to open an account by explaining the different kinds of accounts, and the costs and services of each one. 10. Banks are all different and each one wants to get your business.
Discussing a transaction
XIX. Read the dialogue in pairs.

Trade roles

- Let's discuss the commercial side of our transaction. We'd like to consider prices today.

- You find them suitable, don't you?

- Unfortunately no. Your prices are 5-10% higher comparing with those of your competitors.

- I'm afraid we can't agree with you here. Don't you know that we've some modification, and reduce the power consumption of our equipment?

- Sure, I know that. But as we are close with the market now we are informed that other companies can quote (назначати) lower prices. We expect your understanding of our good will and the fact that our company is rather new, and we intend to have long-term relations with you.

- OK, I think that we'll be able to lower the prices if you increase the order.
^ XX. There are several ways of putting indirect questions:

I wonder....

I'm interested to know....

I'd like to know....

I was wondering....

Could you tell me....
Using these structure ask your friend.

if he is interested in the work of the bank he deals with;

about its business hours, the services it offers.
XXI. Make sure that you know what the following proverbs

1. Money begets money.

2. Money is a good servant but a bad master.

3. Money has no smell.

4. A fool and his money are soon parted.

5. Have money to burn.

6. Time is money.

7. See the colour of smb's money.

8. Head or tails.
XXII. Translate into English:

1. Ви знаете, де зараз живе ваш товариш? 2. Я чув, як добре він розмовляє англійською. 3. Я хочу знати, з ким я туди поїду. 4. Я чув, що ви зараз працюєте над ноною книгою. 5. Ми закінчили, те що ви нас просили зробити. 6. Ви чули, що мій брат одружився? 7. Ми чули, що він переїхав па нову квартиру. 8. Він каже, що жив у Мінську. 9. Він сказав, що живе в Мінську. 10. Він сказав, що жив у Мінську до того як приїхав сюди. 11. Зателефонуйте мені, будь-ласка, коли звільнитесь. 12. Ви не знали, хто це зробив? 13. Його батьки будуть раді, якщо він одружиться. 14. Я сподіваюсь, ви не забули, що у вас завтра доклад. 15. У нас це не займе багато часу, якщо ми почнемо працювати одразу. 16. Де вона буде працювати, коли закінчить університет? 17. Я не знаю, коли вона закінчить університет. 18. Я також не знав, що ви зайняті. 19. Він сказав мені, що знає три іноземні мови. 20. Він відповів, що звільниться, щойно закінчить перекладати статтю.
XXIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

Members of the world business community — including Americans-have woken up to the fact that something remarkable is happening in Europe. If all goes according to plan, by 1999 the currencies of many of the major European nations will be locked into a single system. By 2002, francs, marks, guilders and maybe pesetas and liras will be supplanted by a new currency - the euro. European Monetary Union, known to all as EMU, is the biggest thing that has happened to the world financial system since the Bretton Woods agreement in 1944. To hear Europeans tell it, EMU will mark the emergence on the world's stage of a new political and economic force. And it's an article of faith among Europeans that they won't increase their standing in the world without having a currency mat can look the mighty dollar in the eye.
XXIV. Translate into English:

1. Гроші - це важлива частина будь-якої економічної системи. Без них система не могла б добре функціонувати. 2. Гроші прискорюють процес купівлі та продажу, бо нам не потрібно думати, як знайти необхідний товар, щоб обміняти його через бартер. 3. Першими грошима в США був іспанський долар. Він являв собою срібну монету, вартістю вісім іспанських реалів. 4. Через глибоку економічну кризу в Україні рівень інфляції залишається високим. 5. Справжня вартість грошей - це їхня купівельна спроможність. 6. Раніше ми користувались радянськими рублями. Внаслідок грошової реформи в Україні з'явились гривні. 7. Після І світової війни уряд Німеччини друкував так багато грошей, що людям потрібно було мати велику кількість банкнот, щоб зробити дрібну покупку. 8. Пластикові гроші мають багато переваг над звичайними. 9. В наш час ви можете розраховуватись за товари та послуги, як готівкою, так і кредитними картками. 10. Потрібно утримувати баланс між кількістю грошей та кількістю товарів.
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Early money on the island Uap

On the south-sea of Uap, the medium of exchange1 is called fei. This currency consists of large, solid, thick stone wheels ranging in diameter from one to 12 feet, and in the centre a hole, so that the stones may be carried. They are not found on Uap itself, but are quarried (добуваються) some 400 miles away. Size is the most important factor, but also the fei must be of a certain fine, white limestone (вапняк). A traveller to Uap described the fei as follow:

"A feature of this stone currency is that its owner does not need to actually possess it. After concluding a bargain, which involves a fei too large to be moved, its new owner is quite content (задоволений) to accept the bare acknowledgement on ownership; and without so much as a mark to indicate the exchange, the coin remains undisturbed on the former owner's premises.

There was in a village near by a family whose wealth was unquestioned - acknowledged by every one, and not yet no one, not even the family itself had ever laid an eye on this wealth; it consisted of an enormous fei lying at the bottom of the sea! Many years ago an ancestor of this family, on an expedition after fei, secured this remarkable stone, which placed on a raft (паром). A violent storm arose and the party, to save their lives, were obliged to cut the raft adrift (за течією), and the stone sank out of the sight. When they reached home, they all testified (свідчити) that the fei was of magnificent proportions and extraordinary quality, and that it was lost through no fault of the owners. Thereupon it was universally considered that the mere accident of its loss was too trifling (дрібниця) to mention. The purchasing power of the stone remained, therefore, as valid as if it were leaning visibly against the side of the owner's house.
XXV. Translate into English:

1. Ви поїдете у відпустку після того, як здасте звіт? 2. Ви знаєте, коли ви сьогодні звільнитесь? 3. Як тільки я звільнюсь, я вам зателефоную. 4. Коли ми поїдемо до Парижу, ми будемо бродити по Єлисейських Полях і милуватися містом. 5. Цікаво, коли ми потрапимо до Парижу? 6. Якщо хтось запізниться, ми не будемо чекати. 7. З ким ви так голосно розмовляли по телефону, коли ми ввійшли? 8. Як тільки я прочитаю роман, я зможу дати його вам, якщо хочете. 9. Вам вдалося поговорити вчора з деканом? Ні, я бачив його в коридорі, але він розмовляв зі студентами, а пізніше я сам був зайнятий. 10. Він запитав, чи замовимо ми квитки заздалегідь, і я відповів, що впевнений, що ми зможемо дістати квитки в той же день.


1 средство обращения (функция денег, состоящая в обеспечении обмена одних товаров или услуг на другие)