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Вживання прислів’їв та ідіом на уроках англійської мови

Траіліна Л. П. Запорізький НВК «Вибір»
Перед нашою школою стоїть задача підготувати випускників середньої школи, які мають високий рівень знань іноземних мов. Отже, учні повинні оволодіти іншомовним між культурним спілкуванням шляхом формування і розвитку міжкультурної комунікативної компетенції. Вивчення на уроках фразеологізмів, прислів’їв сприяє частковому вирішенню цієї задачі.
Готуючи своїх учнів до олімпіад, навчая писати творчі роботи, я завжди знайомлю їх з вимогами щодо усного і письмового мовлення. Під час оцінки рівня мовленнєвої компетенції, враховуються знання і уміння вживати розмовні формули, епітети, порівняння, метафори, прислів’я, приказки ідіоми. До того ж у тестах для вступу до вищих навчальних закладів і у тестах на перевірку знань англійської мови як іноземної (TOEFL) часто включаються завдання на перевірку знань англійських прислів’їв та ідіом.
Використання прислів’їв і ідіом сприяє підвищеного інтересу до предмету, поширює знання про мову, допомагає формуванню і удосконаленню комунікативної і соціокультурної компетенції учнів. У майбутньому учні будуть здатні здійснювати міжособистісне та між культурне спілкування з носієм мови.
Вчитель може використовувати наступні прислів’я та ідіоми на уроці.

Appearance

  1. The eyes are the window of the soul.

  2. Appearances are deceptive.

  3. Never judge by appearance.

  4. Fine feathers make fine birds.

  5. Clothes make the man.

  6. A fair face may hide a foul soul.

  7. Handsome is as handsome does.

  8. It is not the gay coat that makes the gentleman.

  9. Prettiness makes no pottage.

  10. Beauty fades like a flower.

  11. Fair without, false within.

Character

1. The greatest talkers are the least doers.

2. Who knows most, speaks least.

3. He that will not be counseled cannot be helped.

4. He that cannot obey cannot command.

5. He that once deceives is ever suspected.

6. A liar is not believed when he tells the truth.

  1. An early riser is sure to be in luck.

  2. Handsome is as handsome does.

9. Every man has his faults.

10. He is so full of himself that he is quite empty.

Friends and Friendship

1. A faithful friend is a medicine of life.

2. Better an open enemy than a false friend.

3. A true friend is the best possession.

4. They are rich who have true friends.

5. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

6. Prosperity makes friends but adversity tries them.

7. A friend to all is a friend to none.

8. A friend in court is better than a penny in purse.

9. Be slow in choosing a friend, but slower in changing him.

10. Friendship, the older it grows, the stronger it is.

11. Before you make a friend eat a bushel of salt with him.

Business. Job.

  1. Business before pleasure.

  2. The work shows the workman.

  3. Idleness is the mother of all evil.

  4. Practice makes perfect.

  5. A bad shearer never had a good sickle. (A bad workman quarrels with his tools).

  6. Jack of all trades is master of none.

  7. The hardest work is to do nothing.

  8. Ninety per cent of inspiration is perspiration.

  9. Through hardship to stars.

  10. What is worth doing at all is worth doing well.

Health.

  1. Wealth is nothing without health.

  2. Good health is better than wealth.

  3. The best doctors in the world are: Doctor Diet, Doctor Quiet and Doctor Merry Man.

  4. A good laughter is the best medicine.

  5. He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything.

6. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

  1. A sound mind in a sound body.

8. A healthy mind in a healthy body.

9. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

  1. Health is better than wealth.

Mass Media

  1. When a dog bites a man, that is not news, but when a man bites a dog, that is the news.

  2. No news is good news.

  3. Bad news had wings.

  4. Bad news is soon told.

  5. Believe no news until it is old.

  6. He that brings good news, knocks boldly.

  7. Ill news is commonly true.

  8. Ill news travels fast.

Money. Debts.

  1. A light purse makes a heavy heart.

  2. Much coin, much care.

  3. A good name is better than riches.

  4. Money begets money. Debt is the worst poverty.

  5. Creditors have better memories than debtors.

  6. A penny saved is a penny gained

  7. Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves.

  8. Want is the whetstone of wit.

  9. Necessity knows no law.

Meals

  1. Appetite comes with eating.

  2. Tastes differ

3. After dinner sit a while, after super walk a mile.

4. You are what you eat.

5. The way to man’s heart is through his stomach.

6. The belly has no ears.

7. Fair words fill not the belly.

8. A hungry man smells meat far off.

9. Eat at pleasure, drink with measure.

10. We eat to live but we don’t live to eat.

Time

  1. Time is money

  2. Time is gold.

  3. Lost time is never found again.

  4. Time is the great healer.

  5. Time heals all wounds.

  6. Time cures all things.

  7. Time tames the strongest grief.

  8. Time and tide wait for no man.

  9. Time flies.

  10. There is a time for everything.

Еducation

1. Little knowledge is a dangerous thing

2. Knowledge is power

3. Live and learn

4. Better untaught than ill taught

5. Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain.
American Idioms

  1. He is afraid of his own shadow. He is easily frightened.

  2. She is at sixes and sevens. She is not organized.

  3. Stop beating around the bush. Stop avoiding the issue.

  4. Joe’s in hot water. Joe’s in trouble.

  5. It happens once in a blue moon. It happens very seldom.

  6. I put two and two together. I used facts to make my decision.

  7. Can you lend me a hand? Can you help me?

  8. Stop beating about the bush. Stop delaying.

  9. Drop me a line soon. Write me a letter soon.

  10. Mom’s got a green thumb. Mom’s is a successful gardener.

  11. I’m all thumbs. I’m clumsy.

  12. It’s still up in the air. It’s still undecided.

  13. Keep the ball rolling. Continue the activity.

  14. I will leave no stone unturned. I will try everything.

  15. Let’s make tracks. Let’s hurry.

  16. It happens once in a blue moon. It happens very seldom.

  17. Did he pop the question? Did he ask you to marry him?

  18. You bet. Certainly.

  19. Can you lend me a hand? Can you help me?

  20. I am tired; I think I’ll call it a day. I am tired; I think I’ll stop working.


Вчитель може використовувати прислів’я у своєму мовленні на уроці. Це надає мові емоційності, сприяє вихованню і розвитку особистості учня. Для реалізації цієї мети могуть бути використані наступні прислів’я.

  1. No pains, no gains.

  2. Better to do well than to say well.

  3. By doing nothing we learn to do ill.

  4. Deeds, not words.

  5. A cat in gloves catches no mice.

  6. Experience is the mother of wisdom.

  7. First think, then speak.

  8. A good beginning makes a good ending.

  9. Haste makes waste.

  10. Lost time is never found again.

  11. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.

  12. Speaking without thinking is like a shooting without aiming.

  13. What is worth doing at all is worth doing well.

14. Practice makes perfect.

15. Repetition is the mother of learning.

  1. Diligence is the mother of good luck.

  2. Success comes in cans and failure comes in can’ts.

  3. No man is born wise or learned.

  4. If at first you don’t succeed, try, try and try again.

  5. Nothing comes from nothing.

Прислів’я, приказки та ідіоми можна використовувати і під час вивчення граматики. Можна запропонувати наступні вправи для введення, узагальнення, закріплення і повторення часів дієслова:

  1. Перекласти на рідну мову. Підібрати синонім.

  2. Заповнити пропуски, поставивши дієслова у необхідній часовій формі.

  3. Побудувати речення у заперечній формі.

  4. Поставити питання до даних прислів’їв.

  5. Прокоментувати вживання окремих граматичних явищ у прислів’ях і цитатах. Перекласти їх. Навести свої речення або ситуації.

  6. Із запропонованого списку дібрати відповідні закінчення до прислів’їв.

  7. Звернути увагу на форму дієслова в третій особі однини ( на вживання неправильних дієслів).



При вивченні ступенів порівняння прикметників просто неможливо обійтись без прислів’їв та ідіом. Їх використання робить процес засвоєння більш емоційним, цікавим, отже і легшим. Можна попросити учнів перекласти наступні прислів’я і вжити їх у своїх ситуаціях або ж діалогах:
Two heads are better than one.

The greatest talkers are the least doers.

Fools are wise as long as silent.

Вивчаючи цю граматичну тему, обов’язково розглядають ідіоми порівняння. Такі ідіоми порівняння як: as fit as a fiddle, as hungry as a hunter, as busy as a bee, as pale as a paper, as poor as a church mouse, as sound as a bell etc. роблять висловлювання яскравішим.

Ідіоми порівняння

as blind as a bat- completely blind.

as fresh as a daisy- very bright, active and untried.

as happy as a lark -very happy.

as stubborn as a mule- very stubborn.

as alike as two peas (in a pod)-exactly alike.

as cool as a cucumber -very calm and not at all upset or worried.

as proud as a peacock- very proud.

Коли ми розглядаємо утворення множини іменників, я пропоную учням вивчити прислів’я з іменниками, які утворюють множину не за загальним правилом, а саме:

Many men, many minds.

Geese with geese and women with women.

A cat in gloves catches no mice.
Вивчаючи числівники, можна вивчити такі прислів’я та ідіоми:

One today is worth two tomorrow.

Two heads are better than one.

Four eyes see more than two.

As plain as two and two make four.

Two is a company, but three is none.

Score twice before you cut once.

Rain before seven, fine before eleven.

A cat has nine lives

In two twos – терміново, зараз.

Baker’s dozen – тринадцять.

^ Forty winks короткий сон; to have forty winks – задрімати.

Like sixty –дуже.

On all fours – на карачках.

Ten to one - напевне , десять шансів проти одного.

To be at sixes and sevens – знаходитись у безладі, догори дригом; бути незібраним.

To put two and two together – зрозуміти, зрозуміти що до чого.

To go fifty-fifty; fifty-fifty амер. ділити порівну, порівну.
Present Simple

3d Person Singular

  1. The appetite comes with eating.

  2. 3. Bad news flies fast.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

4. Every cloud has a silver lining.

  1. Failure teaches success.

Future Simple

  1. Truth will out.

2. Give him an inch and he’ll take an ell.

3. Love will find a way.

4. Fair words will not make the pot play.

5. A drowning man will catch at a straw.

There is (There are)

1. There is no rose without a thorn.

2. There is no rule without an exception.

3. There is a black sheep in every flock.

4. There are two sides to every question.

5. There are spots even on the sun.
The Present Perfect Tense

1. As you have made your bed, so you must lie on it

2. Every oak has been an acorn.

3. When children stand quite they have done something ill.

4. Don’t sell the bear’s skin before you have caught the bear.

The Passive Voice

1. A good deed is never lost.

2. Much is expected where much is given.

3. Lost time is never found again.

4. A workman is known by his work.

5. Success is never blamed.

Conditional Sentenses

1. If two ride on a horse, one must ride behind.

2. If you run after two hares, you will catch neither.

3. If you cannot have the best, make the best of what you have.

4. When the cat is away, the mice will play.

Can

  1. No man can serve two masters.

2. You cannot judge a tree by its bark.

3 . You cannot make an omelet without breaking eggs.

  1. A man can do no more than he can.

May

1. A cat may look at a king.

2. One false move may lose the game.

3. Cloudy mornings may turn to clear evenings.

Must

1. He that is afraid of wounds must not come near a battle.

2. The best of friends must part.

3. He that does not venture must not complain of ill-luck.

The Infinitive

1. Better to do well, than to say well.

2. To know everything is to know nothing.

3. It is easy to be wise after the event.

4. It’s enough to make a cat laugh.

5. It’s never too late to mend.

The Verbal Noun

1. A good beginning makes a good ending.

2. A good beginning is the half of the battle.

3. A constant dropping wears away a stone

4. After dinner comes reckoning.

5. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
The Gerund

  1. Speaking without thinking is shooting without aiming.

  2. Doing is better than saying.

  3. There is no accounting for tastes.

  4. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.


The Present Partiicple.

1. A drowning man catches at a straw.

2. Let sleeping dog lie.  

3. No living man all things can.

4. Burning desire is worse than fire.

The Past Participle

1. A broken friendship may be soldered, but will never be sound.

2. A bitten child dreads the dog; a burnt child dreads the fire.

3. He that once deceived is ever suspected.

4. He that always complains is never pitied.

5. Lost time is never found again

The Imperative Mood

1. First think, then speak.

2. Be slow to promise and quick to perform.

3. Live and learn.

4. Eat at pleasure, drink at measure.

5. Promise little but do much
Вправи для формування граматичної компетенції.
The Present Simple Tense

  1. Open the brackets.

  1. Manners … the man. (to make)

  2. An apple a day … the doctor away.(to keep)

  3. Misfortunes never … alone. (to come)

  4. Bad news … fast. (to fly)

  1. Make the sentences negative.

  1. One swallow … a summer. ( to make)

  1. Man … by bread alone. (to live)

  2. Dog … dog. (to eat)

  3. Clothes … a man. (to make)

  1. Translate the proverbs. Pay attention to the 3d person singular.

  1. The appetite comes with eating.

  2. Even Homer nods.

  3. A good dog deserves a good bone.

  4. A cat has nine lives.

  5. A good beginning makes a good ending.

IV. Read the list of proverbs. You are given two minutes. Try to learn these proverbs and be ready to write them down. The more you write, the better.

  1. Silence means consent.

  2. Time flies.

  3. Practice makes perfect.

  4. Time works wonders.

  5. All is well that ends well.

  6. A new broom sweeps clean.

  7. A cat has nine lives.

  8. Love conquers all.

  9. Ill news travels fast.

  10. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

V. Put general questions to the following proverbs.

  1. The end crowns the work.

  2. Actions speak louder than words.

  3. Clothes make the man.

  4. Extremes meet.

  5. The face is the index of the mind.

  6. A hungry belly has no ears.

  7. Appearances are deceptive.


The Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives

  1. Translate the following proverbs.

  1. Better an open enemy than a false friend.

  2. The busiest men find the most leisure.

  3. As the days grow longer, the storms are stronger.

  4. Fools are wise as long as silent.

  5. The more haste, the less speed.

  1. Complete the proverbs. Use the adjectives in parentheses.

  1. A good name is … than riches. (good)

  2. One’s bark is … than one’s bite. (bad)

  3. Blood is … than water. (thick).

  4. The grass is always … on the other side of the fence. (green)

  5. The greatest talkers are the … doers. (little)

  1. Complete the proverbs with the word combinations given below. Translate them.

  1. The apples on the other side of the wall …

  2. Every man is …

  3. The pen is mightier …

  4. Better an open enemy …

  5. Accidents will happen in …

  1. than the sword

  2. are the sweetest

  3. the best regulated families

  4. than a false friend

  5. nearest to himself

IV. Complete the proverbs.

  1. Two heads are …

  2. Honesty is …

  3. Better late …

  4. East or West …

  5. The more haste, …

^ V.Use the following idioms of comparison in the sentences or situations of your own.

as clear as the sun

as hungry as a hunter

as silent as the grave

as happy as a king

as fit as a fiddle

VI. Work in pairs. Proverb matching. (Student A. receives the first halves of the proverbs and student B. holds the other halves)

VII. Work in groups of four. Make up a short story with the idioms of comparison.

The Passive Voice

    1. Choose the proverbs with the Passive Voice. Translate them.

  1. United we stand, divided we fall.

  2. Lost time is never found again.

  3. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.

  4. Forbidden fruit is sweet.

  5. The devil is not so black as he is painted.

  6. A tree is known by its fruit.

  7. A good deed is never lost.

  8. Ill gotten, ill spent.

  9. Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain.

  10. He that does not respect, is not respected.

    1. Read the following quotations and proverbs and translate them.

  1. Facts alone are wanted in life. (Ch. Dickens)

  2. Wisdom is only found in truth. (I. W. Goethe)

  3. The road to hell is paved with good intentions. (S. Johnson)

  4. The die is cast. (Julius Caesar)

  5. Lost time is never found again. (B. Franklin)

  6. The doors of wisdom are never shut. (B. Franklin)

  7. What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure. (S. Johnson)

  8. A liar is not believed when he speaks the truth.

  9. Much is expected where much is given.

  10. Rome was not built in a day.


Question Tags

Complete the sentences with the correct question tags.

  1. Actions speak louder than words, …?

  2. Two wrongs don’t make a right, …?

  3. You cannot make an omelet without breaking eggs, …?

  4. A good deed is never lost, …?

  5. There is no place like home, …?

  6. There are spots even on the sun, …?

  7. An apple a day keeps the doctor away, …?

  8. Love will find a way, …?

  9. Rome was not built in a day, …?

10. Things past cannot be recalled, …?
Звичайно, сформувати граматичну компетенцію лише за допомогою прислів’їв, приказок та ідіом не можна. Їх доречно використовувати для ілюстрації окремих граматичних явищ, для автоматизації граматичних навичків.