asyan.org
добавить свой файл
1
Завдання для самоперевірки
Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть в кожному з них дієслово-присудок і визначте його видо-часову форму і стан. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.


  1. Mr. Evans is writing a series of articles on the economic situation.

  2. They have lived in Kyiv since 1995.

  3. Many new houses are built every year.

  4. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and by nature.

ІІ. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть Participle I і Participle II, визначте функцію кожного з них. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.


  1. He speaks like a man having his opinion of everything.

  2. The article translated by the student is very interesting.

  3. While translating the article she used a dictionary.

  4. At the conference they discussed new methods used in building.


ІІІ. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть в кожному з них модальне дієслово і його еквівалент. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.


  1. The students must do their homework regularly.

  2. You can get this novel in our library.

  3. They had to wait for a long time.

  4. We shall be able to help them.


ІV. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov was born in 1711 in Archangelsk province. His father was a fisher and young Mikhail liked to help him. He always strove for knowledge and liked reading books. As he was 19 years old, he decided to study in Moscow. He went there on foot. In Moscow he entered the Slavic- Greek-Latin Academy. After his graduation from Academy he was sent abroad to complete his knowledge in chemistry and mining. After he had returned from abroad, he became the first Russian professor of chemistry in 1745.

At first he was engaged in research in physics and chemistry. Since 1748 he had conducted works in the first Russian chemical research laboratory, which was built at his request. Since 1753 he was engaged in research in many fields of natural and applied sciences. He wrote works on physics, astronomy, geography, history. Besides scientific works, he wrote poems as well. He is the author of the first scientifical grammar of the Russian language.

He founded the factory producing colored glass. He created some mosaics using the glass produced at the factory.

Lomonosov was the founder of the first Russian university. This university is situated in Moscow and still carries his name.

Mikhail Lomonosov died in 1765. But he is still known as the father of the Russian science, an outstanding poet, the founder of Russian literature.
V. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. When was Lomonosov born?

  2. Where did he study?

  3. In what fields of science did he write works?

  4. What did he write besides scientific works?

  5. What university is named after his name?

  6. When did he die?



Варіант № 2

І. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть в кожному з них дієслово-присудок і визначте його видо-часову форму і стан. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.


  1. The sky is getting dark.

  2. We are sure that he will have kept his promise.

  3. This book is always read by the students of the first course.

  4. The book will be published in spring.



ІІ. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть Participle I і Participle II, визначте функцію кожного з них. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.


  1. Signing the letter the manager asked to send it off at once.

  2. Knowing the English language well, he can translate newspaper articles without a dictionary.

  3. A broken cup was lying on the table.

  4. All books taken from the library must be returned next week.


ІІІ. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть в кожному з них модальне дієслово і його еквівалент. Перекладіть речення на українську мову.


  1. He can finish his work next week.

  2. He may come to Odessa in summer.

  3. You must post the letter at once.

  4. You need a long rest.


ІV. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky — the Pioneer of Space Travel
K. E. Tsiolkovsky was born in 1857 in the little town of Izhevskoye in the province of Ryazan.

At the age often, he fell seriously ill and became almost deaf. He could not go to school and continued to study at home. When he was a boy of 14, he constructed a lot of different balloons.

At the age of 16 Tsiolkovsky was sent by his father to Moscow to study. He studied hard and three years later he came back home and earned his living by teaching mathematics at school.

Tsiolkovsky made a great contribution to the theory of rocket flight. His works helped scientists to launch sputniks and space rockets into outer space.

It's a pity that K. E. Tsiolkovsky could not see Soviet sputniks, rockets and spaceships. He died on September 19, 1935.

K. Tsiolkovsky was the first man who fully understood the possibilities of rockets. People sometimes ask: why Tsiolkovsky and not Jules Verne, who wrote of manned flight to the moon long before Tsiolkovsky? The reason is that the French writer's fantasy was the imagination of an artist. Tsiolkovsky was the first man to give scientific basis to the exciting stories of space flight. He gave cosmonautics its present form and become its founder. Tsiolkovsky's rocket, not Jules Veme's cannon opened the road into outer space.
V. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. Where was Tsiolkovsky born?

  2. Why couldn't he go to school?

  3. How did he earn his living?

  4. What contribution did Tsiolkovsky make to the theory of rocket flight?

  5. Why was Tsiolkovsky and not Jules Verne the first man who understood the possibilities of rockets?


Варіант № 3
. Перепишіть наступні речення, визначте в кожному з них видо-часову форму і стан дієслова-присудка. Перекладіть на українську мову.


  1. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published.

  2. Electric cars will be widely used in future.

  3. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies.

  4. This lecturer is listened to with great interest.


ІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення слів it, that, one.


  1. One must take part in scientific work.

  2. Specialists consider that in future city transport will reject gasoline.

  3. It is necessary to find new sources of cheap energy.


ІІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення дієслів to be, to have, to do.


  1. Scientists had to create new materials for industry.

  2. The exam was to start in the morning.

  3. This material does not possess classic properties.


ІV. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на безсполучникову підрядність.


  1. We know electricity produces heat.

  2. The new material the chemists developed was used in space technology.


V. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на функцію інфінітива.


  1. It is necessary for a good specialist to know a foreign language.

  2. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.

  3. To increase the productivity of labour one must use the methods we have just describe.

  4. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning.


VІ. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
State Education in Britain
All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies.

Nine million children attend 35.000 schools in Britain. Education is compulsory from 5 till 16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. Most children are taught" together, boys and girls in the same class. At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups. Ninety per cent of secondary schools in England, Scotland and Wales are co-educational.

At 16 pupils take a national exam called "GCSE" (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education.

Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called "A" level (advanced level) at 18. You need "A" level to enter a university. Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics.

Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with "A" levels from 18. Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.
VІІ. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. What do state schools in Britain provide their pupils with?

  2. What can parents choose?

  3. When do children start primary school?

  4. When do pupils take a national exam called GCSE?

  5. What prepares pupils for a national exam called "A" level?

  6. How long do students study for a degree?

  7. Whom do universities and colleges of higher education accept?


Варіант № 4
І. Перепишіть наступні речення, визначте в кожному з них видо-часову форму і стан дієслова-присудка. Перекладіть на українську мову.


  1. The research of planets will be developed with the help of cosmic apparatus.

  2. A curriculum of the new type of secondary school is offered by the ministry of Education.

  3. Many new houses have been built this year.

  4. This book is often referred to.


ІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення слів it, that, one.


  1. In London one must get used to the left-side traffic.

  2. The success in chemistry made it possible to obtain a lot of new materials.

  3. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.

ІІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення дієслів to be, to have, to do.


  1. The engineers are to study the problem of using cosmic rays.

  2. These computers will have to perform millions of operations.

  3. Some substances do not conduct heat.


ІV. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на безсполучникову підрядність.


  1. What is the name of the book you are reading?

  2. The region we must explore possesses great natural wealth.


V. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на функцію інфінітива.


  1. To fulfill this task was not easy.

  2. I have come here to help you.

  3. Our task is to master English.

  4. The teacher told her students to learn the poem by heart.


VІ. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
Private Education
Seven per cent of British schoolchildren go to private school called independent schools. There are 2.400 independent school and they have been growing in number and popularity since the mid-1980s.

Parents pay for these schools, and fees vary from about 250 pounds a term for a private nursery to 3.000 pounds a term or more for a secondary boarding school. Most independent schools are called prep (preparatory) schools because they prepare the children for the Common Entrance Exam which they take at the age of 11. This exam is for entry into the best schools.

The most famous schools are called "public schools" and they have a long history and traditions. It is often necessary to put your child's name on a waiting list at birth to be sure he or she gets a place. Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go to the same public school as their parents, and their grandparents. Eton is the best known of these schools.

The majority of independent secondary schools, inclu­ding public schools, are single-sex, although in recent years girls have been allowed to join the sixth forms of boys' schools. Independent schools also include religious schools (Jewish, Catholic, Muslim etc.) and schools for ethnic minorities.
VІІ. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. How many independent schools are there in Britain?

  2. Why are most independent schools called preparatory schools?

  3. What school is the best known public school?


Варіант № 5

І. Перепишіть наступні речення, визначте в кожному з них видо-часову форму і стан дієслова-присудка. Перекладіть на українську мову.


  1. I am always praised for my work.

  2. He was seen yesterday.

  3. This book will be taken tomorrow.

  4. The library has never closed before nine o’clock.


ІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення слів it, that, one.


  1. The peoples know that their joint efforts can secure peace in the whole world.

  2. It is the member of electrons within the atom that determines the properties of a substance.

  3. It was Einstein who came to the conclusion that the electromagnetic field is influenced by the gravitational field.


ІІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення дієслів to be, to have, to do.


  1. We had to change the design of this machine.

  2. A programme for the construction of new types of spaceships is to be carried out this year.

  3. Specialists do not use solar cells in industry as they are too expensive.


ІV. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на безсполучникову підрядність.


  1. The methods we have just described are very effective.

  2. The instruments our plant produces help to automate production processes.


V. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на функцію інфінітива.


  1. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning.

  2. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.

  3. I am sorry to have interrupted you.

  4. We must learn all the words to speak English well.


VІ. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
Education in Britain
In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. School is compulsory till the children are 16 years old.

In Primary School and First School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Then children go to the Secondary School.

When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in various subjects in order to have a qualification. These qualifications can be either G. C. S. E. (General Certificate of Secondary Education) or «0 level» (Ordinary level). After that students can, either leave school and start working or continue their studies; in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are 18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for getting into university or college.

Some parents choose private schools for their children. They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities.

In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree.
VІІ. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. When does compulsory school begin?

  2. How long does a child stay in compulsory school?

  3. What subjects do children learn in Primary School?

  4. What kind of exam do students have to take when they are 16?

  5. Do students have to leave school at the age of 16 or to continue their studies?

  6. How do private schools differ from the regular ones?

  7. How many universities are there in England?

  8. What is the Open University?

  9. What kinds of degrees do universities award?



Варіант № 6
І. Перепишіть наступні речення, визначте в кожному з них видо-часову форму і стан дієслова-присудка. Перекладіть на українську мову.


  1. This newspaper has been printed every day for twenty years.

  2. They are often sent abroad on business.

  3. The meeting was held last Saturday.

  4. This book will have been taken before you come.


ІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення слів it, that, one.


  1. It is necessary to use the latest means of control in industry.

  2. One should agree that the experiment was of great importance for our research.

  3. It is hydrogen that will be the main source of energy in the car of the future.


ІІІ. Перепишіть речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на різні значення дієслів to be, to have, to do.


  1. The exam was to start in the morning.

  2. Scientists had to create new materials for industry.

  3. You have to come to the language laboratory of the University to work at your pronunciation.


ІV. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на безсполучникову підрядність.


  1. The hostel our students live in is situated not far from the metro station.

  2. I think he has made a mistake in his calculation.


V. Перепишіть наступні речення і перекладіть їх на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на функцію інфінітива.


  1. To speak English well is not difficult.

  2. His only pleasure was to smoke his old pipe.

  3. They want to go to Kyiv tomorrow.

  4. They leave home early to be in time of their lectures.


VІ. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
Britain's Universities

There are about 90 universities in Britain. They are divided into three types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), the 19th century universities such as London and Manchester universities, and the new universities. Some years ago there were also polytechnics. After graduating from a polytechnic a student got a degree, but it was not a university degree. 31 former polytechnics were given university status in 1992.

Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. Most degree courses at universities last 3 years, language courses 4 years (including a year spent abroad). Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7 years).

Students may receive grants from their Local Education Authority to help pay for books, accommodation, transport and food. This grant depends on the income of their parents.

Most students live away from home, in flats or halls of residence.

Students don't usually have a job during term time because the lessons, called lectures, seminars, classes or tutorials (small groups), are full time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings.

University life is considered «an experience». The exams are competitive but the social life and living away from home are also important. The social life is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties, concerts, bars.

There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some professions connected with medicine.
VІІ. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. What are the three types of universities in Great Britain?

  2. What degrees do students get after finishing full courses of study?

  3. What grants do students receive?

  4. Why don't students have jobs during term time?

  5. Why is the university life considered «an experience»?

  6. What courses do colleges offer?


Варіант № 7

І. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Пам’ятайте, що об’єктні і суб’єктні інфінітивні звороти відповідають підрядним реченням.


  1. A member of scientists believed the Tunguska explosion to be caused by a meteorite.

  2. Scientific discoveries to be practically applied in industry and agriculture are paid attention to.

  3. Lasers are known to have found application in medicine.


ІІ. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Зверніть увагу на переклад залежного і незалежного (самостійного) дієприкметникового звороту.


  1. Having visited Kyiv the participants of the conference went to Donetsk.

  2. The customs officer stood on deck counting the cases.

  3. Having been sent to the wrong address the letter didn’t reach him.


ІІІ. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Зверніть увагу на переклад умовних речень.


  1. If the weather is fine tomorrow, we shall go to the country.

  2. If we received the documents tomorrow, we should start loading the goods on Monday.

  3. He would met have caught cold if he had put on a warm coat.


ІV. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
Science and Technology.
In resent years, Scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of ourselves as individuals in society and the Universe as a whole.

Today, science and technology are closely related. Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flight depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.

Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives easier.

Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society. Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one estimate, 90% of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideals, processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount.

The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo, who made revolutionary in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water. However, it was not until the 19th century that technology truly was based on science and inventors began to build on the work of scientists. For example, Thomas Edison built on the early experiment of Faraday and Henry in his invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. So too, Edison carried on his investigations until he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb in a research laboratory. This was the first true modern technological research.

In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all humankind.
V. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. What role has scientific and technological development played in man's life?

  2. What proves that science and technology are closely related today?

  3. What does the term «technology» refer to?

  4. What does the term «industrial technology» mean?

  5. Mow is scientific activity in the 1970-ies estimated?

  6. What facts prove that the scientific revolution of the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together?

  7. What was the first true modem technological research?

  8. How can the history of humankind be described?


Варіант № 8
І. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Пам’ятайте, що об’єктні і суб’єктні інфінітивні звороти відповідають підрядним реченням.


  1. The sun and stars are proved to be able to produce great quantities of energy by means of certain nuclear reactions.

  2. For the experiment we need several electrical devices to be connected in series.

  3. The crew is reported to have carried out a great deal of scientific experiments.


ІІ. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Зверніть увагу на переклад залежного і незалежного (самостійного) дієприкметникового звороту.


  1. Having lost the key he could not enter the house.

  2. He sat in the armchair reading a newspaper.

  3. The student knowing English well, the examination did not easy long.


ІІІ. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Зверніть увагу на переклад умовних речень.


  1. I’ll give you the book on condition you return it next week.

  2. If I saw my friend tomorrow, I should ask him about it.

  3. If he had come, I should have been glad.


ІV. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
Space Exploration
Exploration of outer space in the 20th century has produced discoveries and inventions that will forever change the way people live, learn and interact.

The dream of space travel is old as history but in 20th century the dream became reality with astonishing swiftness. As you recall, the first airplane flight occurred in 1903 and in 1926 the first liquid fuelled rocket was launched that traveled 200 feet.

After World War II, the superpower opposition between the USA and the Soviet Union stimulated rocket research and development. Both nations realized that large rockets can be used to attack an enemy from thousands miles away and that satellites put into orbit around the Earth by rocket could transmit messages.

The soviet launch of sputnik, the first-made object to overcome gravity, began the space age. The Soviet Union soon achieved many other firsts. In 1961, the Soviet Union put the first man, Yuri Gagarin, into space. The first long space flights, a woman in space and space walk were all Soviet achievements. The Soviet Union still retains its leadership in the peaceful application of space exploration. In its Salyut 6, it investigated such vital matters as the causes of cancer, since cells are studied in gravity-free space. The construction of metals can resist gravity has resulted in tools of incredible hardness; improved seeds have been developed in Slyut.

In the early 1960s the United States organized the Apollo space program. This research program concentrated on landing a man on the moon. Two Americans, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrim, walked on the lunar surface in July 1969.

Since the first moon landing, many nations have developed programs of space exploration. Network communication satellites made world­wide television and telephone service possible. Space shuttles allowed regular trips between Earth and space. Scientific satellites were put in the Earth's orbit. Voyages to Venus were made by the Soviet spaceship, voyages to Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - by the American spaceships.

This scientific progress has since resulted in hundreds of benefits for mankind, from the weather satellites whose information's we see in our daily newspapers and on TV, to determining from in the earth in discovering areas which are becoming deserts.
V. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. How has the space exploration changed the life of mankind?

  2. Why can you say that the dream of space travel became reality with astounding swiftness?

  3. In what way has the superpower opposition stimulated the space research?

  4. What «firsts» in space exploration has the Soviet Union achieved?

  5. What peaceful applications of space exploration can you name?

  6. What did the US Apollo space program concentrate on?

  7. What benefits for mankind has space exploration brought?



Варіант № 9
І. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Пам’ятайте, що об’єктні і суб’єктні інфінітивні звороти відповідають підрядним реченням.


  1. They expect the streamer to leave tonight.

  2. He asked for the letter to be sent of by air.

  3. I happened to be there at that time.


ІІ. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Зверніть увагу на переклад залежного і незалежного (самостійного) дієприкметникового звороту.


  1. The Sun having risen, they continued their way.

  2. The goods having been unloaded, the workers left the port.

  3. Standing on the bank of the river, he watched the dockers at work.


ІІІ. Перепишіть і письмово перекладіть на українську мову наступні речення. Зверніть увагу на переклад умовних речень.


  1. He won’t finish his work in time unless he works hard.

  2. If he were here, he would help us.

  3. If I had seen him yesterday, I should have asked him about it.


ІV. Прочитайте і усно перекладіть текст.
X-Rays
Have you ever thought about the time when there was no radio, when flying was a dream, and cinema was only one year old? It was the time when the first motor-cars had just appeared. It was in a world such as this that in 1895 a German professor Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen discovered a new kind of invisible rays. These rays could pass through clothes, skin and flesh -and cast the shadow of the bones themselves on a photographic plate. You can imagine the impression this announcementproduced at that time.

Let us see how Roentgen came to discover these all-penetrating rays. One day Roentgen was working in his laboratory with a Crookes tube. Crookes had discovered that if he put two electric wires in a glass tube, pumped air out of it and connected the wires to opposite electric poles, a stream of electric particles would emerge out of the cathode (that is, the negative electric pole).

Roentgen was interested in the fact that these cathode rays made certain chemicals glow in the dark. On this particular day Roentgen was working in his darkened laboratory. He put his Crookes tube in a box made of thin black cardboard and switched on the current to the tube. The black box was lightproof, but Roentgen noticed a strange glow at the far corner of his laboratory bench. He drew back the curtains of his laboratory window and found that the glow had come from a small screen which was lying at the far end of the bench.

Roentgen knew that the cathode rays could make the screen glow. But he also knew that cathode rays could not penetrate the box. If the effect was not due to the cathode rays, what mysterious new rays were causing it? He did not know, so he called them X-rays.

Roentgen placed all sorts of opaque materials between the source of his X-rays and the screen. He found that these rays passed through wood, thin sheets of aluminium, the flesh of his own hand; but they were completely stopped by thin lead plates and partially stopped by the bones of his hand. Testing their effect on photographic plate he found that they were darkened on exposure to X-rays.

Roentgen was sure that this discovery would contribute much for the benefit of science. Indeed, medicine was quick to realize the importance of Roentgen's discovery. The X-rays are increasingly used in industry as well.
V. Дайте відповіді на запитання:


  1. How can the time of Rontgen's discovery be described?

  2. What experiment was Roentgen making when he discovered a new type of rays?

  3. How did he discover the rays?

  4. What qualities do the X-rays possess?

  5. In what ways are the X-rays used at present?


Варіант № 10

Read the text and fill in the correct words which best complete it.

Holiday Adventure

About five years ago a friend and I went on a cheap camping holiday to the Greek islands. One day we arrived on the island of Paxos as we wanted to go to (11) ……….. church in the main town (12)……….take some photographs of its famous mosaics. After (13)……….the mosaics we walked down to the beach, which, we discovered, was absolutely full of tourists. We’d been (14)……….on the beach for 20 minutes when we decided we were fed up with being surrounded by so many people and my friend went and asked a young man if there (15) ……….any less crowded beaches nearby. He said there was a beautiful beach about five kilometres up the coast and that(16)……….any tourists went there as it was too far from the hotels and bars! He explained that we would have to(17)………. for a white signpost with the name of a villa written on it and the beach was just off the road on the right. We thanked him and started walking up the road. After some time we (18)………. across a yellow signpost saying Villa Magus. We wondered if it was the right place as the young man (19)………. said it was a white signpost. Then we looked down to our right and could just see someone (20)………. on a deserted sandy beach far below. We decided that this was the place for us. (21)………. get to the beach, we had to climb down a steep hill covered in trees. Halfway down the hill we came (22)………. against a high stone wall in the middle of the wood. I climbed over first and my friend threw over our rucksacks. Then he started climbing over. However, while (23)………. down on my side of the wall, he fell to the ground, hit his head and passed out. I immediately tried to (24)………. him round by throwing cold water on his face but he didn’t move. Then suddenly I heard a noise. I turned round and saw an enormous dog (25)………. at me with big black eyes. I just froze. After what seemed like ages a young woman appeared and asked me (26)………. I knew I was on private property. I (27) ………. For climbing over her wall and explained what had (28)………. to my friend. Ten minutes later we were in her villa and my friend had come round. The woman told us she was actually quite happy we had “dropped in” as there was a terrible (29) ………. of people to talk to! She invited us to put up our (30) ………. In her garden and we stayed for two glorious weeks, eating in the villa and sunbathing on her private beach.

11. 1) a 2) the 3) - 4) any

12. 1) in 2) - 3) to 4) at

13. 1) to see 2) photograph 3) seeing 4) to photograph

14. 1) lying 2) spend 3) laying 4) lie

15. 1) was 2) are 3) is 4) were

16. 1) hard 2) no 3) more 4) hardly

17. 1) look 2) find 3) have 4) had

18 1) go 2) went 3) came 4) seeing

19. 1) had 2) have 3) has 4) having

20.1) walking 2) sit 3) swim 4) sat

21.1) having 2) want 3) to 4) as

22.1) to 2) at 3) with 4) up

23.1) climbeing 2) climbing 3) was 4) is

24.1) see 2) bring 3) have 4) take

25.1) ran 2) looked 3) staring 4) ranning

26.1) that 2) what 3) why 4) whether

27.1) thanked 2) apologized 3) sorry 4) told

28.1) happened 2) be 3) happen 4) was

29.1) noise 2) crowd 3) lack 4) group

30.1) fire 2) sandwiches 3) tent 4) clothes